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Berg, C., Allen, C. (1958) The problem of homosexuality. NY: Citadel Press.

SUBJECTS: 13 males, 1 females.

METHOD: Psychoanalytically oriented therapy

RESULTS: 11 (10 males, 1 female) apparent cures, 1 social cure, 1 failure


Berger, J. (1994) The psychotherapeutic treatment of male homosexuality. American Journal of Psychotherapy. 48, 2: 251 - 261.

ABSTRACT: "In recent years very few psychodynamic contributions to the aetiology or treatment of male homosexual behavior have been made. This paper based on material from patients, and noting the contributions of others, indicates that such patients can be understood and treated successfully."

"A possible aetiological factor that has not been mentioned before in the literature, the abortion of a pregnancy conceived by the male patient may have led to the patient 'coming out' or declaring his homosexuality, is discussed."

"Three main conclusions are reached. First that human sexuality is not rigidly compartmentalized into either hetero- or homosexuality but varies on a continuous spectrum, and is affected in any individual by psychodynamic influences. Second, that before 'coming out,' young people should have the opportunity to explore their sexual identity with a psychodynamically oriented psychotherapist. Third, that some patients whose fantasies and behavior have been homosexual at some time, can become comfortably and fulfillingly heterosexual with psychotherapeutic treatment."

SUBJECTS: 3 homosexual men.

ABORTION: Abortion triggers homosexual behavior in two patients. Turning away from women did not totally relieve anxiety and other symptoms emerged.

CASE: 1 male turned to homosexuality after his baby was aborted. After therapy he experienced pleasurably heterosexual relations with occasional homosexual fantasies; 1 male, narcissistic personality, after abortion exclusively homosexual, left therapy and remained homosexual; 1 male, before therapy homosexual fantasies and encounters, after therapy, married, heterosexually fulfilling, 3 children, fears acting on occasional fleeting homosexual fantasies, but has not acted out in 20 years.


Bergler, E. (1962) Homosexuality: Disease or Way of Life. NY: Collier Books.

DEFINITION OF CHANGE: "And 'cure' denotes not bisexuality, but real and unfaked heterosexuality."

THEORY: Homosexuals are severe, psychic, masochists who unconsciously reject love, admiration, approval and kindness, and posses wishes for exact opposite -- pain, humiliation, reject, and conflict.

SUBJECTS: 250 homosexuals seen for treatment, 150 sent to colleagues.

RESULTS: 112 cases successful treated, 50 successes by colleagues.

Many of those not changed did not complete treatment.

CHANGE: "In nearly thirty years, I have successfully concluded analyses of one hundred homosexuals... and have seen nearly five hundred cases in consultation. On the basis of the experience thus gathered, I make the positive statement that homosexuality has an excellent prognosis in psychiatric-psychoanalytic treatment of one to two years' duration, with a minimum of three appointments each week -- provided the patient really wishes to change. A considerable number of colleagues have achieved similar success. "


Bergler, E. (1961) Counterfeit Sex. NY. Grove Press


Bergler, E. (1959) One Thousand Homosexuals. Patterson, NJ: Pagent.


Beukenkamp, C. (1960) Phantom Patricide. Archives of General Psychiatry. 3: 282 - 288.

SUBJECT: 1 male, sought treatment following arrest for soliciting in a public washroom.

METHOD: Psychoanalytic analysis, plus group therapy.

RESULTS: Recovered, married


Bieber, I., Dain, H., Dince, P., Drellich, M. Grand, H., Gundlach, R., Kremer, M., Rifkin, A., Wilbur, C., Bieber, T. (1962) Homosexuality: A Psychoanalytical Study. NY: Vintage.

SUBJECTS: 106 homosexual men, 100 controls, all in psychoanalysis.


METHOD: Psychoanalysis with male and female therapists, reports from the therapists. Careful analysis of each case: childhood experiences systematically compared with results of therapy.

RESULTS: 29 patients had become exclusively heterosexual during the course of psychoanalytic treatment. Of those who were exclusively homosexual before treatment 19% became exclusively heterosexual, 19% bisexual. Of those who were bisexual before treatment 50% became exclusively heterosexual.(276)

DISORDER: "The capacity to adapt homosexually is, in a sense a tribute to man's biosocial resources in the face of thwarted heterosexual goal-achievement. Sexual gratification is not renounced; instead, fears and inhibitions associated with heterosexuality are circumvented and sexual responsivity with pleasure and excitement to a member of the same sex develops as a pathologic alternative."(303)

"Any adaptation which is basically an accommodation to unrealistic fear is necessarily pathologic; in the adult homosexual continued fear of heterosexuality is inappropriate to his current reality. We differ with other investigators who have taken the position that homosexuality is a kind of variant of 'normal' sexual behavior."

FATHER: "We have come to the conclusion that a constructive, supportive, warmly related father precludes the possibility of a homosexual son; he acts as a neutralizing protective agent should the mother make seductive or close binding attempts."(311)


Bieber, I. (1965) Clinical aspects of male homosexuality (in Marmor, J. (ed.) Sexual Inversion: The Multiple Roots of Homosexuality. NY: Basic Books.) 248 - 267.


Bieber, I. (1967) Homosexuality. (in Freeman, A., Kaplan, H. (eds) Comprehensive Textbook of Psychiatry. Baltimore: Williams and Wilkins.) 963 - 976.


Bieber, I. (1977) Sexuality: 1956 -1976. Journal of the American Academy of Psychoanalysis. 5, 2: 195 - 205.


Bieber, I., Bieber, T. (1979) Male Homosexuality. Canadian Journal of Psychiatry. 24, 5: 409 - 421.

CHANGE: "We have followed some patients for as long as 20 years who have remained exclusively heterosexual. Reversal estimates now range from 30% to an optimistic 50%".


Bieber, T. (1967) On treating male homosexuals. Archives of General Psychiatry. 16, 68.


Braaten, L., Darling, C. (1965) Overt and covert homosexual problems among male college students. Genetic Psychology Monographs. 71:269 - 310.

SUBJECT: 76 male (42 overt homosexuals, 32 covert) 50 male controls

METHOD: Psychotherapy

RESULTS: 12 (29%) of overt homosexuals moving toward heterosexuality, 7 (21%) of the covert.


Caprio, F. (1954) Female Homosexuality: A Psychodynamic Study of Lesbianism. NY: Citadel Press.

CASE HISTORIES: Review of early literature and treatment.

THEORY: "Lesbianism is a symptom not a disease entity. It is the result of a deep-seated neurosis which involves narcissistic gratifications and sexual immaturity. It also represents a neurotic defense mechanism for feelings of insecurity -- a compromise solution for unresolved conflicts involving one's relationship during childhood and adolescence to one's parents."

THERAPY: " Lesbians can be cured if they are earnest in their desire to be cured. Adequate self-knowledge via psychoanalysis is essential to effect a permanent cure. Psychoanalysis and psychotherapy constitute today the most effective means of treating sexual inversions. Since lesbianism is a symptom of a personality disorder, it may be reiterated that treatment must be aimed at influencing the personality structure rather than the treatment of homosexuality as though it were a disease entity."

RESULTS: "Many patients of mine, who were formerly lesbians, have communicated long after treatment was terminated, informing me that they are happily married and are convinced that they will never return to a homosexual way of life."


Coates, S. (1962) Homosexuality and the Rorschach test. The British Journal of Medical Psychology. 35: 177 - 190.

SUBJECTS: 33 males

METHOD: Psychoanalytically orientated

RESULTS: 5 (15%) better, 5(15%) not having any sexual activity


Curran, D., Parr, D. (1957) Homosexuality: An analysis of 100 male cases seen in private practice. British Medical Journal. 12: 797 - 801.

SUBJECTS: 100 males with homosexuality as the presenting problem

METHOD: 23 psychotherapy, 11 in patient care, 66 simple counseling

RESULTS: 24 homosexuals diagnosed 100% homosexual no chance of change - 1 changed; 14 predominantly homosexual - 2 changed; 14 reasonable hope of change - 6 changed.


Deutsch, H. (1932) On female homosexuality. The Psychoanalytic Quarterly. 1:484 - 510.

SUBJECT: 1 female, not homosexually active

METHOD: Psychotherapy

RESULTS: Became homosexual active


Eidelberg, L. (1956) Analysis of a case of a male homosexual. (in S. Lorand, Balint, M. (eds.) Perversions, Psychodynamics, and Therapy. NY: Gramercy) 279 - 289.

SUBJECT: 1 male

METHOD: Psychotherapy


Ellis, A. (1955a) On the cure of homosexuality. International Journal of Sexology. 5: 135 - 138.


Ellis, A. (1955b) Are homosexuals necessarily neurotic. One. 3, 4: 8 - 12.


Ellis, A. (1956) The effectiveness of psychotherapy with individuals who have severe homosexual problems. Journal of Consulting Psychology. 20, 3: 191 -195.

SUBJECTS: 40 patients presenting with homosexual behavior; 28 were moderately or distinctly emotional disturbed, 12 were severely emotionally disturbed.

METHOD: Psychotherapy, treated for their homosexual problem or neurosis rather than for their homosexual desire or activity per se.

RESULTS: Of the 20 patients who came to therapy with a serious desire to overcome homosexual problems, all made some improvement and 16 made considerable improvement in their sex-love relations with members of the other sex."

Of the 20 male and female patients who entered therapy with little or moderate desire to over being homosexual problems (but who came, instead, mainly to work on other problems or to relieve their guilt over being homosexual), 10 (50%) achieved some improvement, and 3 (15%) achieved considerable improvement.

DISORDER: "... women who do become lesbians will tend to be more emotionally disturbed, on the whole than male homosexuals... it should be noted that 29 per cent of the males and 67 per cent of the females studied were found to be very severely emotionally disturbed - a quite high percentage in both instances."

CHANGE: "... it is felt that there are some grounds for believing that the majority of homosexuals who are seriously concerned about their condition and willing to work to improve it may, in the course of active psychoanalytically-oriented psychotherapy, be distinctly helped to achieve a more satisfactory heterosexual orientation."


Ellis, A (1959) A homosexual treated with rational therapy. Journal of Clinical Psychology. 15: 338 - 343.

SUBJECT: 1 male - The client had no prior heterosexual experience and had a great fear of rejection.

GOAL: Ellis made no attempt to rid the client of homosexual feelings but rather wrote that the goal of therapy was to help the client overcome his irrational blocks against heterosexuality.

METHOD: Rational-Emotive Behavior Therapy (REBT) This is a report of one of the first clients treated with a special therapeutic approach which the therapist developed after many years of practicing orthodox psychoanalysis and psychoanalytically orientated psychotherapy.

RESULTS: By the 12th week of rational psychotherapy, the client "had changed from a hundred per cent fixed homosexual to virtually a hundred per cent heterosexual.


Ellis, A. (1965) Homosexuality: Its causes and cures. NY: Lyle Stuart

CHANGE: "I have treated in my private practice in New York City, scores of homosexual patients during the last 10 years, and I have found that the rational therapeutic approach is much more effective ... than was my previous psychoanalytic approach to therapy."


Ellis, A. (1968) Sexual manifestation of emotionally disturbed behavior. Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science. 100, 376


Ellis, A. (1992) Are gays and lesbians emotionally disturbed? The Humanist. Sept. Oct. :33 - 45

DISORDER: Ellis no longer believes that same-gender sexual orientation is a sign of inherent emotional disturbance - people are free to "try a particular sexual pathway such as homosexuality for a time and then decide to practically abandon it for another mode, such as heterosexuality."


Etchegoyen, R. (1978) Some thoughts on transference perversion. International Journal of Psycho-Analysis. 59: 45 - 53.

SUBJECT: 1 female

METHOD: Psychoanalysis for 10 years

RESULTS: Change of orientation


Freud, A. (1951a) Clinical observations on the treatment of manifest male homosexuality. Psychoanalytic Quarterly. 20: 337.


Freud, A. (1951b) Some clinical remarks concerning the treatment of male homosexuality. the International Journal of Psychoanalysis. 30: 195.

CHANGE: Reported that many of her patients lost their inversion as a result of analysis, and this happened even in those who proclaimed their wish to remain homosexual when entering treatment.

SUBJECTS: 8 males

METHOD: Psychoanalysis

RESULTS: 50% success rate


Fried, E. (1960) The Ego in Love and Sexuality. NY: Grune & Stratton.

THEORY: "The high degree of narcissistic isolation with which many homosexual persons are burdened makes them unable to tolerate dissimilarities in other people. They have not managed to acquire the ability to perceive and enjoy in others... physical attributes and personal qualities that differ from their own."

METHOD: "If attention is directed primarily to the emotional and mental problems of the homosexual and homosexuality is regarded as a symptom that will disappear after the personality has been put on a sounder basis, it impossible to achieve a good percentage of cures."

CHANGE: "Practicing homosexuals can be helped to achieve a normal and indeed passionate love relation with the other sex. They can be helped to build satisfactory marriage relationships and to start a family. This has occurred both with several patients whom I have treated and with those of other therapists."


Fry, C., Rostow, E. (1942) Mental Health in College. London: Oxford U. Press.

SUBJECTS: 16 established homosexuals students pressured by Yale U. to consult therapist.

METHOD: Psychotherapy

RESULTS "Psychiatric contact with such patients were not at all satisfactory."


Gordon, A. (1930) The history of a homosexual: His difficulties and triumphs. Medical Journal and Record. 130: 152 - 156.

SUBJECTS: 1 male

METHOD: Psychoanalytically oriented therapy

RESULTS: Follow up at two years. Complete change, happily married.


Gutheil, E. (1939) The Language of the Dream. NY: Macmillan.

CHANGE: Dr. Emil Gutheil, practicing psychoanalyst and editor of the American Journal of Psychotherapy. "There have been cures; all experienced psychiatrists have them. These cures should be better known to give hope to people."

DISORDER: "In every single case a neurotic structure can be discovered. Therapy seeks to lower the anxiety and to remove the unnecessary defenses against the opposite sex. In the treatment do not ask why the homosexual is so, but what stops him from being heterosexual. If you find out, you release the heterosexual element."

CHANGE: "Many patients of mine, who were formerly lesbians, have communicated long after treatment was terminated... informing me that they are happily marred and are convinced that they will never return to a homosexual way of life."


Hadfield, J. (1958) The cure of homosexuality. British Medical Journal. 1:1323 - 1326.

SUBJECTS: 13 cases

METHOD: Dynamic psychotherapy

RESULTS: Eight complete changes (some followed up over 30 years - 1 lost homosexual tendencies, 1 married with children, 1 no homosexual desires); 1 case cessation of behavior but not fantasy; 4 no change (3 failure due to lack of persistence, 1 failure even though persistent.)

DEFINITION OF CHANGE: "By cure I do not mean... that the homosexual is merely able to control his propensity ... Nor .. do I mean that the patient is rendered capable of having sexual relations and bearing children; for ... he might do this by the help of homosexual fantasies. By 'cure' I mean that he loses his propensity to his own sex has his sexual interests directed towards those of the opposite sex, so that he becomes in all respects a sexually normal person."


Hatterer, L. (1970) Changing homosexuality in the Male. NY: McGraw-Hill Book Co.

SUBJECTS: "Over the past 17 years I have evaluated 710 males troubled and untroubled by a vast spectrum of homosexual fantasy, impulse act and milieu. Since 1953 I have successfully and unsuccessfully treated well over 200 of them." Study of 143 men, 3 still in treatment.

RESULTS: 49 patients changed (20 married, of these 10 remained married, 2 divorced, 18 achieved heterosexual adjustments); 18 partially recovered, remained single; 76 remained homosexual (28 palliated - 58 unchanged).

CHANGE: "A large undisclosed population has melted into heterosexual society, persons who behaved homosexually in late adolescence and early adulthood, and who, on their own, resolved their conflicts and abandoned such behavior to go on to successful marriages or to bisexual patterns of adaptation."


Jacobi, J. (1969) A case of homosexuality Journal of Analytical Psychology.14: 48 - 64.

SUBJECT: 1 male

RESULTS: Felt like new man, heterosexual attraction increasing


Janov, A.(1970) The Primal Scream. NY: Dell.


METHOD: Primal therapy

THEORY: "It is the primal hypothesis that when needs are deprived and feelings are blocked early in life, they emerge in symbolic form. In sex this means that the act will be experienced (usually via the fantasy) as fulfilling the need"

THEORY: "I think that it is essential for us to see sexually deviate behavior as part of a total neurosis and not as some special, bizarre act disconnected from what the person is as a whole. But I do not think that it requires a specialist in homosexuality to treat him, any more than it requires a specialist to treat any other flight from Pain. The treatment of homosexuality does not mean producing either masculine or feminine behavior. It means, to me, producing real behavior."

"The homosexual act is not a sexual one. It is based on the denial of real sexuality and the acting out symbolically through sex of a need for love... The homosexual has usually eroticized his need so that he appears to be highly sexed. Bereft of his sexual fix, his lover, he is like an addict without his connection... I have found that homosexual habits that have persisted for years have faded away in the face of reality."


Kronemeyer, R. (1980) Overcoming Homosexuality. NY: Macmillan.


METHOD: Syntonic therapy

THEORY: "From my 25 years' experience as a clinical psychologist, I firmly believe that homosexuality is a learned response to early painful experiences and that it can be unlearned, For those homosexuals who are unhappy with their life and find effective therapy it is 'curable'".

RESULTS: "About eighty percent of homosexual men and women in Syntonic Therapy have been able to free themselves and achieve a healthy and satisfying heterosexual adjustment. These individual were selected as follows: (1) They were not psychotic and had the ability to work and function as self-supporting people. (2) They were not psychopathic and had the ability to experience the emotions of fear and guilt and to be aware that they we re not fulfilling their human potential. (3) They came to therapy for themselves and not to please someone else. (4) They were able to direct their aggression therapeutically and were able to learn to work with themselves, between sessions, when in anxiety or panic states, rather than act out their problem homosexuality. 5) They were strongly enough motivated to go through the inevitable rough spots of change without quitting, staying till they resolved their problems."


Lamberd, W. (1969) Treatment of homosexuality as a monosymptomatic phobia. The American Journal of Psychiatry. 126: 512 - 518.

SUBJECTS: 3 males

METHOD: Psychological therapy

RESULTS: Complete change: 1 love affair and rejection, but no homosexual desire; 1 married satisfactory; 1 no homosexual impulses.


Mayerson, P., Lief, H. (1965) Psychotherapy of Homosexuals: A follow-up study of nineteen cases. (in Marmor (ed) Sexual Inversion: The Multiple Roots of Homosexuality. NY: Basic Books) 302 - 344.

SUBJECTS: 19 homosexuals (14 males, 5 females). Follow-up study of patients who had been treated in Hutchinson Memorial Psychiatric Clinic of Tulane U. of Department of Psychiatry and Neurology..

METHOD: Psychotherapy

RESULTS: 47% heterosexual at follow-up. (57% of bisexuals, 22% of exclusively homosexual)


Monroe, R., Enelow, M. (1960) The therapeutic motivation in male homosexuality. American Journal of Psychotherapy. 14, 474 - 490.

SUBJECTS: 7 males

METHOD: Psychotherapy

RESULTS: 3 married, 1 not sexually active, 3 outcome unknown


Nicolosi, J.(1991) Reparative Therapy of Male Homosexuality. Northvale NJ: Aronson.


METHOD: Reparative therapy

FATHER: "...the primary cause of homosexuality is not the absence of a father figure, but the boy's defensive detachment against male rejection. As long as the boy remains open to masculine influence, he will eventually encounter some father-figure who will fulfill his needs. Every male has a healthy need for intimacy with other males."


Ovesey, L. (1963) Psychotherapy of male homosexuality -- Psychodynamic formulation.. Archives of General Psychiatry. Sept.

SUBJECTS: 3 males

METHOD: Psychoanalysis

RESULTS: Married, fully heterosexual.


Ovesey, L, Gaylin, W. (1965) Psychotherapy of male homosexuality: Prognosis, selection of patients, technique. American Journal of Psychotherapy. 382 - 396.

GOALS: "Full potency in itself is not a final solution to a homosexual patient's problem. It is too narrow a therapeutic goal. It is doubtful that heterosexuality once established can be sustained without the framework of a total relationship with a woman.

The approach looks upon homosexuality as a multidetermined symptom of a neurosis. Psychotherapy is then based on an understanding of the unconscious motivations that impel the patient to flee from women and to seek contact with men."(395)


Ovesey, L. (1954) The homosexual conflict: an adaptiational analysis. Psychiatry. 17: 243.


Ovesey, L (1955a) The pseudohomosexual anxiety. Psychiatry. 18: 17.


Ovesey, L. (1955b) Pseudohomosexuality, the paranoid mechanism, and paranoia.: An adaptational revision of a classical Freudian theory. Psychiatry. 18: 163.


Ovesey, L. (1969) Homosexuality and Pseudohomosexuality. NY: Science House.


Ovesey, L., Woods, S. (1980) Pseudohomosexuality and homosexuality in men: Psychodynamics as a guide to treatment. (in Marmor (ed.) Homosexual Behavior: A Modern Reappraisal. NY: Basic Books) 325 -341.


Poe, J. (1952) The successful treatment of a 40-year-old passive homosexuality based on an adaptational view of sexual behavior. Psychoanalytic Review. 39:23 - 33.

SUBJECT: 1 male

CHILDHOOD: Mother wanted him to be a girl. Father threatened to cut off penis if he masturbated.

METHOD: Psychodynamically directed therapy

RESULTS: Married, heterosexual fantasy


Quinodoz, J. ( 1989) Female homosexual patients in psychoanalysis. International Journal of Psycho-Analysis. 70: 55 - 63.

SUBJECTS: 2 females

RESULTS: One left analysis and the other found her way back to a "better established female identity."


Regardie (1949) **

SUBJECTS: 1 male

METHOD: Psychotherapy and hypnosis

RESULTS: Satisfactory marriage with no homosexual fantasies.


Richardson, D. (1987) Recent challenges to traditional assumptions about homosexuality: Some implications for practice. Journal of Homosexuality. 13: 1.

CHANGE: Individuals can change orientation from homosexual to heterosexual, or heterosexual to homosexual.


Ross, M., Mendelson, F. (1958) Homosexuality in college. American Medical Association Archives of Neurological Psychiatry. 80: 253 - 263.

SUBJECTS: 15 overt male homosexuals, 5 overt female homosexuals college students

METHOD: Psychotherapy from 2 to 20 months

RESULTS: 4 considerable improvement, 10 mild improvement. These results were equal or better than the results for treatment by the same therapists for a matched group of students with nonhomosexual related problems.

CHANGE: "To our surprise, the initial signs of strong motivation for change were not ordinarily present in the homosexuals benefiting from therapy."


Siegle, E. (1988) Female Homosexuality: Choice without Volition - A Psycho analytic Study. Hilldale, NJ: Analytic Press.

SUBJECTS: 12 women patients self-identified as homosexual, with homosexual behavior, and fantasies.

GOALS: "As with any other patient, I did not set out to 'cure' them or to dissuade them from their lifestyle."

METHOD: Reduction of conflicts reduction of anxiety through psychoanalysis

THEORY: "I came to understand their difficulties as developmental arrests that precluded heterosexual object choices... As conflicts were resolved and distanced from, anxiety was reduced and life became more joyful and productive for all these analysands... With the attainment of firmer inner structures, interpersonal relationships also solidified and became more permanent...

RESULTS: 50% heterosexual change. "Although I never interpreted homosexuality as an illness, more than half of the women become fully heterosexual. "

ANTI-CHANGE: "The homosexual community and networks to which ... my patients belonged reacted very much like the families of disturbed children when the child, as a result of treatment, is no longer forced to express conflict for them.... I was struck by their common need to idealize homosexuality as better than heterosexuality and by the volatility of their suffering..."

CHANGE: "To be a liberal and liberated women and yet to view homosexuality as the result of untoward development seemed at times a betrayal of all I then believed. But viewing my patients through the lens of psychoanalytic thinkers and clinicians soon showed me that allowing myself to be seduced into perceiving female homosexuality as a normal lifestyle would have cemented both my patients and myself into a rigid mode that precluded change of whatever nature."


Socarides, C. (1968) The Overt Homosexual. NY.: Grune & Stratton


Socarides, C. (1974) Homosexuality. (in American Handbook of Psychiatry. Vol. 3. NY: Basic Books) 308.

METHOD: Psychoanalytic therapy

RESULTS: 50% changed


Socarides, C. (1978) Homosexuality. NY: Aronson.


Socarides, C. (1979) The psychoanalytic theory of homosexuality: With special references to therapy. (in Rosen, I. (ed) Sexual Deviation. NY: Oxford U.P.) 243 - 277.

SUBJECTS: 45 over homosexuals treated between 1966 and 1977

METHODS: Psychoanalytic psychotherapy

RESULTS: 20 of 45 (44%) achieved "full heterosexual functioning."


Stekel, W. (1930) Is homosexuality curable? Psychoanalytic Review. 17: 443 - 450.

SUBJECT: 1 male

METHOD: Psychoanalysis

RESULTS: Married, absolutely overcome homosexual tendencies.


van den Aardweg, G (1972) A grief theory of homosexuality . American Journal of Psychotherapy. 26: 52 -68.

SUBJECTS: 20 males

METHOD: Exaggeration therapy

RESULTS: 10/20 real cures at follow-up


van den Aardweg, G. (1985) Homosexuality and Hope. Ann Arbor: Servant.


van den Aardweg, G. (1986) On the Origins and Treatment of Homosexuality: A Psychoanalytic Reinterpretation. Westport, CT: Praeger.

SUBJECTS: 101 males

METHOD: Psychotherapy

RESULTS 65% improved


van den Aardweg, G. (1997) The Battle for Normality: A Guide for (Self-) Therapy for Homosexuality. San Francisco: Ignatius


Wallace, L. (1969) Psychotherapy of a male homosexual. Psychoanalytic Review. 56: 346 - 364.

SUBJECT: 1 male

METHOD: Psychotherapy

RESULTS: Happily married


Williams, C. (1991) Forever a Father, Always a Son. Wheaton IL: Victor Books.

RESULTS: "...my clinical experience and that of my professional peers "We have had successes with homosexuals who are unhappy with their lifestyles and want to experience a heterosexual orientation."

"In working with homosexuals, my experience is that they can make a shift in sexual orientation if they are interested and motivated."


Willis, S. (1967) Understanding and Counseling the Male Homosexuality. Boston: Little Brown.

THEORY: "As a ritualistic compulsion, homosexual behavior is basically no more or less refactory to treatment than any other compulsive ritual not involving homosexual behavior."


Woodward, M. (1958) The diagnosis and treatment of homosexual offenders: A clinical survey. British Journal of Delinquency. 9: 44 - 59.

SUBJECTS: 113 males (including 10 juveniles, 20 adult pedophiles)

METHOD: Psychotherapy (5 psychotherapy with hormones)

RESULTS: Of the 48 who completed therapy: 7 had no homosexual impulses and heterosexual interests and activities, 21 had no homosexual impulses.




Review of the literature on group therapy


Rogers, C., Roback, H., McKee, E., Calhoun, D. (1976a) Group psychotherapy with homosexuals: A review. Journal of Group Psychotherapy. 24, 1: 3 - 24.

REVIEW: Review of the literature on group therapy with homosexuals. Discussion of the advantages of all homosexual groups versus inclusion of homosexuals in other groups.

CHANGE: "In general, reports on the group treatment of homosexuals are optimistic, in almost all cases the therapists report a favorable outcome of therapy whether the therapeutic goal was one of achieving a change in sexual orientation or whether it was a reduction in concomitant problems."

GROUP: "The major therapeutic advantages of the treatment of homosexuals in heterogeneous groups seem to be in providing a setting in which homosexuals may develop meaningful relationships with members of the opposite sex, in which models of appropriate sex-role behaviors are present, and in which the homosexual desiring to change will be given encouragement and support."

"The major therapeutic advantages of the treatment of homosexuals in homogenous groups seem to be the power of the group in breaking down defensive rationalizations about homosexuality, in providing an exceptionally supportive and empathic group in which to deal with problems related to homosexuality, and in the case of groups oriented toward changing sexual preferences, providing a supportive and encouraging atmosphere for change, including the beneficial effect of seeing others make progress toward a heterosexual adjustment."

A "... homosexual can be successfully treated in group psychotherapy whether the treatment orientation is one of a change in sexual pattern of adjustment, or whether a reduction in concomitant problems is the primary goal."


Case Studies


Bieber, T. (1971) Group therapy with homosexuals. (in Kaplan, Sadock. Comprehensive Group Psychotherapy. Baltimore: Williams & Wilkins.) 518 - 532.

Birk, L., Miller, B., Cohler, B. (1970) Group Psychotherapy for Homosexual Men. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavia. 218: 1 - 33.

SUBJECTS: 30 patients

METHOD: Group therapy, individual counseling plus 1/3 had aversive conditioning. RESULTS: Four dropped out; 9 experienced heterosexual relations for first time. 3 married, 3 engaged (33% of 26 who remained in therapy)

CHANGE: Birk reports probably the highest success rates of any therapist. In a subgroup of 14 exclusively homosexual men who wanted to change 100% attained heterosexual adaptation. Of those 14 clients who achieved change - 10 were satisfactorily married at follow-up. Pretreatment motivation considered key. In a subgroup of clients not expressing any pretreatment interest in sexual orientation change 4 out of 15 (27%) reported a shift to heterosexual adaptation. .


Birk, L. (1974) Group psychotherapy of men who are homosexual. Journal of Sex and Marital Therapy. 1: 29 - 52.

SUBJECTS: 26 males (includes 16 from 1971 study)


Birk, L. (1980) (in J. Marmor (ed.) Homosexual Behavior: A Modern Reappraisal. NY: Basic Books. 376 - 390.


Bromberg, W., Franklin, G. (1952) The treatment of sexual deviates with group psychodrama. Group Psychotherapy. 4: 274 - 279.

SUBJECTS: 75 male patients who had been committed for a variety of sexual offenses.

RESULTS: Open rift developed between homosexual and heterosexual patients. with homosexual patients verbally assaulting the heterosexuals, becoming exhibitionistic in terms of homosexual affectations.


Buki, K. (1964a) A treatment program for homosexuals. Diseases of the Nervous System. 25: 304 -360.

SUBJECTS: 40 hospitalized male sexual offenders: among these seven had a diagnosis of homosexuality, four homosexuality-pedophilia, two homosexuality-exhibitionism, and two homosexuality-transvestitism.

METHOD: Chemotherapy (antidepressants and tranquilizers) coupled with group and industrial therapy.

RESULTS: 6 of the 15 homosexual patients were judged to be significantly improved, 4 showed promising results and 5 were unsatisfactory.


Buki, K. (1964b) The use of psychotropic drugs in the rehabilitation of sex-deviated criminals. American Journal of Psychiatry. 120: 1170 - 1175.

SUBJECTS 36 male patients committed for a variety of homosexual offenses

METHOD: Medications and, in some cases group psychotherapy.

RESULTS: After 90 days of treatment, 13 patients were judged to show significant remission of homosexual behavior and impulses, and 12 were judged to have improved but required additional treatment.


Cabeen, C., Coleman, J. (1962) The selection of sex offender patients for group psychotherapy. International Journal of Group Psychotherapy. 12: 326 -334.

SUBJECTS: 120 male sexual offenders committed to a state mental hospital of whom 40 were considered to be homosexual (i.e., had been committed for a sexual offense with a male subject, usually a child.


Cappon, D. (1965) Toward an Understanding of Homosexuality. Englewood Cliffs. NJ: Prentice Hall.

SUBJECTS: "...a distillation of diagnosing and treating some 200 homosexual patients among a population of 2,000 psychiatric patients who happened to come for therapy."

METHOD: Individual and group therapy.

RESULTS: "Bisexual problems: 90 per cent cured (i.e., no reversions to homosexual behavior, no consciousness of homosexual desire and fantasy) in males who terminated treatment by common consent. Male homosexual patients: 80 per cent showed marked improvement (i.e., occasional relapses, release of aggression, increasingly dominant heterosexuality)... 50 per cent changed." females 30% changed.

DEFINITION OF CHANGE: "loss of all symptoms, cure of main problem and change in sleep dream forms and content."

CHANGE: "In the experience of the author, reorientation occurs at least as frequently in homosexual persons as in people afflicted by any other disorder"

"When all is said and done, the therapeutic attitude is nothing if it is not utterly optimistic."


Covi, I. (1972) A group psychotherapy approach to the treatment of neurotic symptoms in male and female patients of homosexual preference. Psychotherapy & Psychosomatic. 20:176 - 180.

SUBJECTS: 30 homosexual patients (8 female, 22 male);10 classified as anxiety neurosis, 5 borderline schizoid personality, 3 sociopaths; 8 males, 1 female expressed desire to change sexual orientation (7 of these were under some form of legal pressure.)

GROUP: Main benefits of the group therapy is supplying group pressure to prevent therapeutic dropouts, in distributing dependence on the group and aiding the therapist in his understanding of the "gay" subculture.


Eliasberg, W. (1954) Group treatment of homosexuals on probation. Group Psychotherapy. 7: 218 -226.

SUBJECTS: 12 male homosexuals on probation for a "homosexual offense" one diagnosed as schizophrenic.

METHOD: 2 six member therapy groups,

RESULTS. 1 discontinued all homosexuality and got married.


Finney, J. (1960) Homosexuality treated by combined therapy. Journal of Social Therapy. 6: 27 - 34.


Fort, J., Steiner, C., Conrad, C. (1971) Attitudes of mental health professionals toward homosexuality and its treatment. Psychological reporters. 29: 347 - 350.


Fried, E. (1955) Combined group and individual therapy and passive-narcissistic patients. International Journal of Group Psychotherapy. 5: 194 - 203.


Hadden, S. (1957) Attitudes toward and approaches to the problem of homosexuality. Pennsylvania Medical Journal . 60: 1195 - 1198.


Hadden, S. (1958) Treatment of homosexuality by individual and group psychotherapy. American Journal of Psychiatry. March. 810 - 815.

SUBJECTS: 3 homosexuals

METHOD: Group therapy

RELAPSE: "The homosexual drive may be remarkably diminished, or even absent, and patients may be adjusting to an heterosexual pattern but final "commitment" is difficult. This means giving up friends who have accepted them in their homosexuality. ... More than once I have felt that some of my patients have reached this stage in individual treatment and have discontinued because they could not make the final commitment. In the group the members are supported in this final phase. "

GROUP: "From my experience I have concluded that homosexuals can be treated more effectively by group psychotherapy when they are started in groups made up exclusively of homosexuals. In such groups the rationalization that homosexuality is a pattern of life they wish to follow is destroyed by their fellow homosexuals. (814)


Hadden, S. (1966a) Treatment of male homosexuals in groups. International Journal of Group Psychotherapy. 17, 1:13 - 22.


Hadden, S. (1966b) Group psychotherapy of male homosexuals. Current Psychiatric Therapies. 6: 177 - 186.

CHANGE: "While there is little doubt that the homosexual is difficult to treat and is prone to break off treatment... if psychotherapists themselves come to adopt a less pessimistic attitude and view homosexuality simply as a pattern of maladaptation, greater numbers of such patients will be significantly helped."


Hadden, S. (1966c) Male homosexuality: Observations on its psychogenesis and on its treatment of group psychotherapy. (in Proceedings of Third International Congress of Group Psychotherapy. NY: Philosophical Library.) 272 - 278.


Hadden, S. (1967a) A way out for homosexuals. Harper's Magazine. March. 107 - 120.

MOTHER: Harold's mother frequently told the story of how when he was three he told a woman on the playground that he didn't want to play with her son because he might spoil his clothes, he might get hurt and "other children play silly games." In turn other members of group shared repressed anger over how their "adored" mothers never let them do what they wanted, but convinced them they wanted to do things mother's way.

CHILDHOOD: "I am fully convinced that the delicate, effeminate physique of some homosexuals is not due to any constitutional of glandular difference but results from the fact that they have been deprived of rough physical play in early childhood....

In my observation, homosexuals are deeply troubled people."


Hadden, S. (1967b) Male homosexuality. Pennsylvania Medicine. Feb.: 78 - 80.

THEORY: "In group treatment, the male homosexual finds acceptance by individuals who have found their homosexuality unacceptable and are seeking a heterosexual adjustment. Acceptance in such a group can motivate the individual to work toward a heterosexual adjustment. The banter, the teasing, and the blunt critical comments of the group serve as a verbalized equivalent of the scrambling kind of play so important in the preschool life of the child. Through these verbalized reassuring comments of the group, he is able to gain confidence to feel wanted, not as a sexual object, but as a friend at an adult masculine level. He begins to think of himself more as 'all man' and begins to expand his heterosexual integration..."

1. We consider homosexuality to be an experientially determined patterns of maladaptation and as such it is amenable to treatment.

2. Disturbed child-parent relationships and inter-parental conflict contribute to the development of various patterns of maladaptation.

3. Lack of effective scrambling peer play relationships in the toddling and pre-school period is a most important factor in creating the loneliness and aloofness that predisposes to homosexuality.

4. Effective rough and tumble peer play relationships may compensate for defective child-parent and inter parental relationships.

5. Homosexuality can be altered by individual treatment but group psychotherapy is a superior method.

6. As our knowledge of etiologic factors increases, prevention can be anticipated.


Hadden, S. (1968) Group psychotherapy for sexual maladjustments. American Journal of Psychiatry. 125: 85 - 88.


Hadden, S. (1969) Rehabilitation of sexual delinquents with special references to the homosexually oriented. Pennsylvania Medicine. 72;49 -51.


Hadden, S. (1971) Group therapy for homosexuals. Medical Aspects of Human Sexuality 5: 116 - 127.


Konietzko, K. (1971) (in Karlen, A. Sexuality and Homosexuality. NY: W.W. Norton)

CHANGE: Dr. Kurt Konietzko is a Philadelphia psychologists with wide experience in individual and group psychotherapy. He was originally a Rogerian, but many years' work with delinquents, addicts and criminals made him turn to an active directive approach.

"I usually have four to sex homosexuals in therapy. I give individual and group treatment, with one or two homosexuals in each group. First we work on their anxieties and nonsexual problem. Then on sex."

ANTI-CHANGE: "The vast majority come in saying, "Just adjust me to my homosexuality." And that's what you have to do with the greater number of them. But change is possible, and one of the problems is their resistance to that fact. The existence of one cured homosexual changes the nature of the condition in homosexuals' eyes. It challenges them. So they try to deny it." (569)


Litman, R. (1961) Psychotherapy of a homosexual man in a heterosexual group. International Journal of Group Psychological Therapy. 11:440 - 448.

SUBJECT: 1 male, 27 year old, seeking treatment to become a better adjusted homosexual

METHOD: Group therapy with heterosexuals -- three men and four women.

RESULTS: Behavior became non-homosexual, masculine identification increased as a result of support from female members of the group.


Mintz, E. (1966) Overt male homosexuals in combined group and individual treatment. Journal of Consulting Psychology. 30, 3 : 193 - 198.

ABSTRACT: "Of 10 homosexual men who voluntarily entered treatment and remained in combined therapy (CT) for 2 or more years, all report improved general adjustment. 3 report satisfactory heterosexual adjustment, 3 hope to achieve it eventually. advantages of CT for such patients include: Dissolution of rationalizations about homosexuality; development of a stronger sense of personal identity through contact with women and with heterosexual men; emergence of hitherto unconscious anxieties related to their heterosexual drives; and corrective emotional experiences, often resulting in enhanced self-esteem."

SUBJECTS: 15 males

METHOD: Combination of individual and mixed group therapy.

RESULTS: 5 terminated treatment (2 accepted themselves as homosexual); 5 completed therapy (2 are enjoying heterosexuality, 1 still in conflict); 5 still in treatment (1 lost interest in homosexuality, 1 does not intend to change homosexual adjustment, 3 appear to be moving toward heterosexuality).

MOTHER: "One young man shared with his devoted mother the secret fiction that he was a special person, so delicate and gifted that for him the heterosexual way of life was inappropriate. Mother and son used his homosexuality to maintain their intense mutual dependency. When the group assailed his claim that homosexuality was somehow precious and superior, the patient's tie to his mother began to weaken, and he developed a growing interest in girls."

GROUP: "Homosexuals frequently associate almost exclusively with other homosexuals. Many have never had any more than a superficial relationship with any women or heterosexual men. In the group they develop these non-sexual relationships."


Mintz, E. (1965) Male-female co-therapists. American Journal of Psychotherapy. 19: 293 -301.


Moore, K., Query, W. (1963) Group psychotherapy as a means of approaching homosexual behavior among hospitalized psychiatric patients. Journal of Kentucky State Medical Association. 61 : 403 - 407.

SUBJECTS: Patients identified by hospital staff as having engaged in homosexual behavior on the ward were recruited for a therapy group. All members of the therapy group carried a diagnosis of schizophrenic reaction of predominantly paranoid and hebephrenic features of long duration.

GOAL: Reduce homosexual behavior on ward.


Munzer, J. (1965) The treatment of the homosexual in group psychotherapy. Topical Problems in Psychotherapy. 5: 164 - 169.


Nobler, H. (1972) Group therapy with male homosexuals. Comprehensive Group Studies. 3: 161 - 178.


Pittman, F., De Young, C. (1971) The treatment of homosexuals in heterogeneous groups. The International Journal of Group Psychotherapy. 21: 62 -73.

SUBJECTS: 4 males, 2 females

METHOD: Heterogeneous group therapy

RESULTS 1 male happy marriage and baby; 3 males improved; 1 female dropped out; 1 female became heterosexual


Powdermaker, F., Frank, J. (1953) Group Psychotherapy. Cambridge: Harvard U.P.


Shealy, A. (1972) Combining behavior therapy and cognitive therapy in treating homosexuality. Psychotherapy: Theory, Research and Practice. 9: 221 - 222. [in James 1978]

SUBJECTS: 1 male

METHOD: Rational emotive psychotherapy

RESULTS: Overt homosexuality eliminated, homosexual images decreased


Skene, R. (1973) Construct shift in the treatment of a case of homosexuality. The British Journal of Medical Psychology. 46: 287 -292

SUBJECT: 1 male

METHOD: Fixed role therapy

RESULTS: Improved


Smith, A., Basin, A. (1959) Overt male homosexuals in combined group and individual treatment. Journal of Social Therapy. 5: 225 - 232.

SUBJECTS: 2 males

METHOD: Group therapy

RESULTS: 1 marked improvement; 1 seeking adjustment to homosexuality.


Singer, M., Fischer, R. (1967) Group psychotherapy of male homosexuals by a male and female co-therapy team. International Journal of Group Psychotherapy. 17: 44 - 52.


Stone, W., Schengber, J., Seifried, F. (1966) The treatment of a homosexual woman in a mixed group. International Journal of Group Psychotherapy. 16: 425 - 433. ===================================

Truax, R., Moeller, W., Tourney, G. (1970) The medical approach to male homosexuality. Journal of the Iowa Medical Society. 60: 397 - 403.


Truax, R., Tourney, G. (1971) Male homosexuals in group psychotherapy: A controlled study. Diseases of the Nervous System. 32: 707 - 711.

SUBJECTS: 25 males, 20 waiting list controls

METHOD: 6 sub groups

RESULTS: Follow-up interviews 1 to 3 years - 5 discontinued treatment (2 improved); 14 terminated at the end of 7 months (6 improved); 5 continued group (5 improved); 6 continued individual therapy (5 improved).


Whitman, R., Stock, D. (1958) The group focal conflict. Psychiatry. 21: 269 - 276. ============================


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