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Dale's Web Pages ONE OUT OF TWO

CHANGE OF SEXUAL ORIENTATION REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE

By NARTH


======================================

5) BEHAVIOR MODIFICATION AND CONDITIONING

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Alexander, L. (1967b) Psychotherapy of sexual deviation with the aids of hypnosis. American Journal of Clinical Hypnosis. 9:181 - 183.

SUBJECT: 1 male, married

METHOD: Clinical hypnosis and psychotherapy

RESULTS: Free from homosexual desires, no longer regarded as homosexual by other homosexuals, closer to wife, better sexual relations, disappearance of effeminate mannerisms.

======================================

Bancroft, J., Marks, I. (1968) Electric aversion therapy of sexual deviations. Proceedings Royal Society of Medicine. 61:796 -799

SUBJECTS: 19 males including 3 pedophiles

METHOD: Treated with aversive instrumental conditioning with shock.

RESULTS: 13/18 (72%) are changed or somewhat changed; at one year follow-up 1/10 much improved, 4/10 improved


Bancroft, J. (1970) A comparative study of aversion and desensitization in the treatment of homosexuality (in Burns, L. & Worsley, J. Behavior Therapy in 1970's: A Collection of Original Papers. Bristol, England: John Wright & Sons.) 12 - 33.

SUBJECTS: 23 males

METHOD: 11 treated by systematic desensitization, 12 treated by aversive instrumental conditioning with shock.

RESULTS: 3 men much improved, 7 improved, considered as changes in sexual orientation and behavior that are likely to continue. (Aversion -- 1 much improved, 4 improved; Desensitization -- 2 much improved, 3 improved)

======================================

Barlow, D., Leitenberg, H., Agras, W. (1969) Experimental control of sexual deviation through manipulation of the noxious scene in covert sensitization. Journal of Abnormal Psychology. 74: 597 - 601.

SUBJECT: 1 male, married

METHOD: Covert sensitization

RESULTS: Increased heterosexual behavior and fantasies


Barlow, D. (1972a) Review of M.P. Feldman & M. J. MacCulloch "Homosexual behavior: therapy and assessment." Behavior Therapy. 3: 479 - 481.


Barlow, D., Agras, W., Leitenberg, H., Callahan, E., Moore, R. (1972b) The contribution of therapeutic instruction to covert sensitization. Behavior Research and Therapy. 10: 411 - 415.

SUBJECTS: 4 males

METHOD: Covert sensitization

RESULTS: Changes in penile arousal


Barlow, D., Agras, W. (1973a) Fading to increase heterosexual responsiveness in homosexuals. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis. 6: 355 -366.

SUBJECTS: 3 males

METHOD: Aversion therapy and psychotherapy

RESULTS: 1 - asexual; 1 considering marriage; 1 heterosexual behavior, no homosexual.


Barlow, D. (1973b) Increasing heterosexual responsiveness in the treatment of sexual deviation: A review of the clinical and experimental evidence. Behavior Therapy. 4: 655 - 671.


Barlow, D. (1974) The treatment of sexual deviation: Toward a comprehensive behavior approach. (in Calhoun, K., Adams, H., Mitchell, K. (ed) Innovative Treatment Methods in Psychopathology. NY: John Wiley & Sons .


Barlow, D., Agras, W., Abel, G., Blancard, E., Young, L. (1975) Biofeedback and reinforcement to increase heterosexual arousal in homosexuals. Behavior Research and Therapy. 13: 45 - 50.

SUBJECT: 1 male

METHOD: Positive instrumental conditioning with feedback

RESULTS: Continued homosexual behavior

======================================

Bergin, A. (1969) A self regulation technique for impulse control disorders. Psychotherapy: Theory, Research and Practice. 6: 113 - 118.

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Blitch, J., Haynes, S. (1972) Multiple behavioral techniques in a case of female homosexuality. Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry. 3:319 - 322.

SUBJECT: 1 female

METHOD: Behavior rehearsal, role playing, systematic desensitization to heterosexuality, masturbatory conditioning

RESULTS: Heterosexual behavior and images.

======================================

Callahan, E., Leitenberg, H. (1973) Aversion therapy for sexual deviation: Contingent shock and covert sensitization. Journal of Abnormal Psychology 81: 60 -73

SUBJECTS: 2 males (1 married)

METHOD: Covert sensitization and counseling, aversive instrumental conditioning with shock.

RESULTS: Married subject - sexual and non-sexual aspects of marriage improved; other subject had a subsequent homosexual contact but felt no excitement, dating women.

======================================

Cautela, J. (1967) Covert sensitization. Psychological Reports. 20: 459 - 469

SUBJECTS: 2 males

METHODS: Covert sensitization in vivo

RESULTS: No homosexual behavior.


Cautela, J., Wisocki, P. (1969) The use of male and female therapists in the treatment of homosexual behavior (in Rubin, R., Franks, C. Advances in behavior therapy. NY: Academic Press.) 165 - 174.

SUBJECTS: 4 males

METHOD: Systematic desensitization in vivo, covert sensitization, assertiveness training

RESULTS: 1 married; 1 engaged; 2 dating.


Cautela, J. (1970) Covert reinforcement.


Cautela, J. (1971a) Covert extinction. Behavior Therapy. 2: 192 -200. [in James 1978]


Cautela, J., Wisocki, P. (1971b) Covert sensitization for the treatment of sexual deviation. Psychological Record. 21: 37 - 48.

SUBJECTS: 8 males

METHOD: Covert sensitization.

RESULTS: 3 changed (37%) year follow up.

======================================

Colson, S. (1972) Olfactory aversion therapy for homosexual behavior. Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry. 3: 185 - 187.

SUBJECT: 1 male

METHOD: Aversive instrumental conditioning in vivo and marital counseling

RESULTS: Marriage improved substantially

======================================

Conrad, S., Wincze, J. (1976) Orgasmic reconditioning: A controlled study of its effects upon the sexual arousal and behavior of adult male homosexuals. Behavior Therapy. 7: 155 -166.

SUBJECTS: 3 males

METHOD: Masturbatory conditioning

RESULTS: 1 no longer bothered by homosexual thoughts; 1 pleased by successful heterosexual relations; 1 heterosexual interests.

======================================

Curtis, R., Presly, A. (1972) The extinction of homosexual behavior by covert sensitization: A case study. Behavior Research and Therapy 10:81 - 83.

SUBJECT: 1 male, married

METHOD: Covert sensitization in vivo, aversion relief conditioning

RESULTS: Complete abstinence of homosexuality in fantasy and reality, marriage improved

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DiScipio, W. (1968) Modified progressive desensitization and homosexuality. The British Journal of Medical Psychology. 41: 267 - 272.

SUBJECTS: 1 male hospitalized for manic depression

METHOD: Systematic desensitization to heterosexuality with photos and in vivo

RESULTS: Decided to live as a passive homosexual

======================================

Feldman, S. (1956) On homosexuality (in Lorand, S., Balint, M. Perversions: Psychodynamics and Therapy. NY: Random House.) 71 - 96.


Feldman, M., Mac Culloch, (1965) The application of anticipatory avoidance learning to the treatment of homosexuality. Behaviour Research & Therapy. 2: 165 - 183.


Feldman, M., MacCulloch, M. (1971) Homosexual Behavior: Therapy and Assessment. Oxford: Pergamon Press.

SUBJECTS: 41 males, 7 females.

METHOD: Anticipatory avoidance conditioning, aversion relief conditioning therapy.

RESULTS: "Treatment... was successful in nearly 60% of the cases after a follow-up of at least a year."

At follow-up 20 neither homosexual fantasy or practice; 4 still using homosexual fantasy

DEFINITION OF CHANGE: "Our criteria for accepting the occurrence of change were severe, and we have attempted to prove patients' claims to be false rather than accepting them at face value. Failure to appear was rated as a failure.

======================================

Fookes, B (1968) Some experiences in the use of aversion therapy in male homosexuality, exhibitionism and fetishism-transvestitism. The British Journal of Psychiatry. 115: 339 - 341.

SUBJECTS: 15 males

METHOD: Aversive classical conditioning with shock

RESULTS: 9 successes defined as unrefuted claim to have lost desire for homosexuality, supported claim to have enjoyed heterosexual coitus on more than 1 occasion. Average follow-up of successes 37.5 months.

======================================

Freeman, W., Meyer, R. (1975) A behavioral alteration of sexual preferences in the human male. Behavior Therapy. 6: 206 - 212.

ABSTRACT: "Sexual behavior is analyzed as a complex social episode composed of alternating instrumental and respondent behaviors. The type of sexual consummatory behavior selected by an individual is mainly a function of the type of stimuli eliciting sexual arousal and penile erection. A therapy was designed to alter the arousal eliciting stimuli for nine male homosexuals by classical conditioning techniques."

SUBJECTS: 9 males

METHOD: Aversive classical conditioning with shock

RESULTS: At 18 months follow-up, 7 continued exclusive heterosexual adjustment

======================================

Freund, K. (1960) Some problems in the treatment of homosexuality (in Eysenck, H. Behavior Therapy and Neurosis. London: Pergamon Press) 312 - 326.

SUBJECTS: 67 males (20 were court referred cases)

METHOD: Aversive classic conditioning with drugs

RESULTS: 17 (26%) of the 47 non-court referred and 0% of the court-referred showed adaptation lasting several years. 7 (15%) of the non-court referred and 3% of the court-referred showed short term change in adaptation.


Freund, K. (1971) A note on the use of phallometric method of measuring mild sexual arousal in the male. Behavior Therapy. 2: 223 -228.

=====================================

Greenspoon, J., Lamal, P. (1987) A behavioristic approach (in Diamant, L. (ed) Male and Female Homosexuality: Psychological Approaches. NY: Hemisphere) 109 - 127.

THEORY: " ...the effects of office-based conditioning programs can be undone by lack of reinforcement in heterosexual functioning. They stress the development of social skills necessary in heterosexual situations through role playing, homework, and supportive counseling."

======================================

Gray, J. (1970) Case conference: Behavior therapy in a patient with homosexual fantasies and heterosexual anxiety. Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry. 1: 225 - 232.

SUBJECT: 1 male

METHOD: Systematic desensitization

RESULTS: Partial recovery

======================================

Hallam, R., Rachman, S. (1972) Some effects of aversion therapy on patients with sexual disorders. Behavior Research and Therapy. 10: 171 - 180.

SUBJECTS: 3 males

METHOD: Systematic desensitization

RESULTS: 1 improved; 2 remained homosexually active

======================================

Hanson, R., Adesso, V. (1972) A multiple behavioral approach to male homosexual behavior: A case study. Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry. 3: 323 - 325

SUBJECTS: 1 male

METHOD: Systematic desensitization

RESULTS: At 6 months continued enjoying heterosexual activity, homosexual inclination negligible

======================================

Herman, S., Barlow, D., Agras, W., (1974a) An experimental analysis of classical conditioning as a method of increasing heterosexual arousal in homosexuals. Behavior Therapy 5: 33 - 47.

SUBJECTS: 2 males

METHOD: Classic conditioning

RESULTS: 1 some change, 1 failure


Herman S., Barlow, D., Agras, W., (1974b) An experimental analysis of exposure to "explicit heterosexual stimuli as an effective variable in changing arousal patterns of homosexuals. Behavior Research and Therapy. 12 : 335 - 345.

SUBJECTS: 3 males

METHOD: Exposure to heterosexual imagery

RESULTS: 1 failure; 1 married homosexual fantasies during masturbation; 1 no sexual activity, frequent homosexual urges

======================================

Huff, F., (1970) The desensitization of a homosexual. Behavior Research and Therapy. 8: 99 - 102.

SUBJECTS: 1 male

METHOD: Systematic desensitization

RESULTS: At 6 month follow-up both homosexual and heterosexual behavior had increased.

======================================

Ince, L. (1973) Behavior modification of sexual disorders. American Journal of Psychotherapy. 27: 446 - 451.

SUBJECTS: 1 male

METHOD: Covert sensitization

RESULTS: Felt sexually neutral

=======================================

James, B. (1962) A case of homosexuality treated by aversion therapy. British Medical Journal. 1:768 - 770


James, B., Early, D. (1963) Aversion therapy for homosexuality. British Medical Journal. 1:538.

Follow up of previous articles

SUBJECTS: 1 male

METHOD: Aversive classical conditioning with shock

RESULTS: 18 month follow-up no recurrence of homosexual drives, some homosexual attraction.

======================================

Kendrick, S., McCullough, J. (1972) Sequential phases of covert reinforcement and covert sensitization in the treatment of homosexuality. Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry.3: 299 -231.

======================================

Kraft, T. (1967) A case of homosexuality treated by systemic desensitization. American Journal of Psychotherapy. 21: 815 - 821.

SUBJECTS: 1 male

METHOD: Systematic desensitization

RESULTS: 9 months follow-up, no recurrence of homosexual desires, desires heterosexual intercourse.


Kraft (1970)

THEORY: "Desensitization techniques are preferable to aversion techniques because they promote the incorporation of heterosexual activity as opposed to merely the elimination of homosexual attraction."


Kraft, T., (1971) A case of homosexuality treated by combined behavior therapy and psychotherapy: A total assessment. Psychotherapy and Psychosomatics. 19: 342 - 358.

SUBJECTS: 1 male

METHOD: Systematic desensitization and psychoanalytic treatment

RESULTS: Homosexual thoughts had disappeared, better general adjustment.

======================================

Larson, D. (1970) An adaptation of the Feldman and MacCulloch approach to treatment of homosexuality by the application of anticipatory avoidance learning. Behavioral Research and Therapy. 8: 209 - 210.

======================================

Levin, S., Hirsh, T., Shugar, G., Kapche, R. (1968) Treatment of homosexual and heterosexual anxiety with avoidance conditioning and systematic desensitization: Data and case report. Psychotherapy: Theory, Research, and Practice. 5: 160 -168.

SUBJECT: 1 male

METHOD: Avoidance conditioning

RESULTS: Satisfactory heterosexual relations with occasional homosexual fantasy.

======================================

LoPiccolo, J. (1971) Case study: Systematic desensitization of homosexuality. Behavior Therapy. 2: 394 - 399.

SUBJECTS: 1 male

METHOD: Systematic desensitization

RESULTS: Heterosexually active, no homosexual urges at 11 month follow-up.

======================================

Maletzky, B., George, F. (1973b) The treatment of homosexuality by 'assisted' covert sensitization. Behavior Research and Therapy. 11: 655 - 657.

SUBJECTS: 10 males

METHOD: Covert sensitization

RESULTS: 4 passed temptation test at follow-up (one of these required 10 booster sessions.)

======================================

Mandel, K.(1970) Preliminary report on a new aversion therapy for male homosexuals. Behavior Research and Therapy. 8: 93 - 95.

SUBJECTS: 2 males

METHOD: Aversive classical conditioning.

RESULTS: Improvement, but concerned about possible relapse.

======================================

Marquis, J. (1970) Orgasmic reconditioning: Changing sexual object choice through controlling masturbation fantasies. Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry. 1: 263 - 271.

SUBJECTS: 6 males, 1 female

METHOD: Masturbatory conditioning and other methods

RESULTS: Female achieved satisfying relationship with man. Males saw improvement but with relapses

======================================

Mastellone, M. (1974) Aversion therapy: A new use for the old rubber band. Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry. 5: 311 - 312.

SUBJECTS: 1 male

METHOD: Aversive instrumental conditioning

RESULTS: Heterosexual activity

======================================

Master, W., Johnson, V. (1979) Homosexuality in Perspective. Boston: Little Brown, Co.

SUBJECTS: 67 homosexuals, 14 lesbians who requested reversion therapy to heterosexuals

METHOD: Sexual training

RESULTS: Success rate of 71.6% after a follow-up of six years.

THERAPY: "No longer should the qualified psychotherapist avoid the responsibility of either accepting the homosexual client in treatment or... referring him or her to an acceptable treatment source."

======================================

Max, L. (1935) Breaking up a homosexual fixation by the conditioned research technique: A case study. Psychological Bulletin. 32: 734.

======================================

McConaghy, N. (1969) Subjective and penile plethysmograph responses following aversion-relief and apomorphine aversion therapy for homosexual impulses. British Journal of Psychiatry. 115 : 723 - 730.

SUBJECTS: Total 40 - 20 drug therapy group (10 males + 10 males in a delayed therapy control group); 20 shock therapy (10 males + 10 males in delayed therapy control group)

METHOD: Aversive classical conditioning with drugs compared to aversive classical conditioning with shock.

RESULTS: After treatment, 27 of the patients were rated as more heterosexual, 9 as more homosexual. Final outcome: 10 marked improvement; 15 some improvement; 10 no improvement; 5 lost to follow-up.


McConaghy, N. (1971) Aversion therapy of homosexuality: Measures of efficacy. American Journal of Psychiatry. 127, 9 : 1221 - 1224.


McConaghy, N., Barr, R., (1973) Classical, avoidance and backward conditioning treatments of homosexuality. The British Journal of Psychiatry. 122: 151 - 162.

SUBJECTS: 46 males

METHOD: 31 treated with aversive classical conditioning with shock; 15 with avoidance conditioning

RESULTS: At 9 month follow-up 13 had an increase in heterosexual desire. 25% ceased homosexual relations


McConaghy, N. (1975) Aversive and positive conditioning treatments of homosexuality. Behavior Research and Therapy. 13: 309 - 319.

SUBJECTS: 16 males aversive conditioning, 15 males positive conditioning

METHOD: Aversive classical conditioning with shock compared to positive conditioning.

RESULTS: At one year follow-up - 14 reported an increase in heterosexual desire, 7 reported an increase in heterosexual relations.

======================================

McCrady, R., (1973) A forward-fading technique for increasing heterosexual responsiveness in male homosexuals. Journal of Behavior therapy and Experimental Psychiatry. 4:257 - 261.

SUBJECTS: 1 male

METHOD: Forward fading and group therapy

RESULTS: Remained homosexually active

CASE: Successful treatment of a 27-year-old gay man who had occasional same-sex experiences from the age 16. However, "for both moral and practical reasons, when he entered therapy, he was highly motivated to increase his heterosexual behavior (and to decrease his homosexual behavior)" McCrady showed the client a nude female and then faded the image into a nude male. During the course of therapy, the client began referring to himself by saying, "when I used to be homosexual."

======================================

Myerson, A., Neustadt, R. (1946) Essential male homosexuality and results of treatment. AMA Archives of Neurology and Psychiatry. 55:291 - 293.

SUBJECT: 15 males (essential homosexuals)

METHOD: Treatment with methyl testosterone

RESULTS: 1 reported homosexual feelings disappeared

======================================

Philips, D., Fischer, S., Groves, G., Singh, R.(1976) Alternative behavioral approaches to the treatment of homosexuality. Archives of Sexual Behavior. 5: 223 -228.

SUBJECT: 31-year-old homosexual man who requested sexual reorientation because the gay world was losing its appeal. The client experienced anxiety concerning heterosexual physical contact.

METHOD: Therapy used two desensitization hierarchies.

RESULTS: Client able to initiate heterosexual contact and at 18 months follow-up reported no same-gender sexual activity.

======================================

Ramsey, R., van Velzen, V. (1968) Behavior therapy for sexual perversions. Behavior Research and Therapy. 6: 233.

======================================

Rehm, L., Rozensky, R. (1974) Multiple behavior therapy techniques with a homosexual client: A case study. Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry. 5: 53 - 57.

SUBJECT: 1 male

METHOD: Various forms of behavior modification, including hypnosis

RESULTS: No homosexual activity, heterosexual dating

======================================

Roper, P. (1967) The effects of hypnotherapy on homosexuality. Canadian Medical Association Journal. 96: Feb., 11: 319 - 327

ABSTRACT: "Fifteen homosexuals were treated with hypnosis. The patients were selected from a general psychiatric practice and had a long history of confirmed homosexual behavior and showed no evidence of organic or psychotic illness. The type of hypnotic induction attempted in all cases is described. In those where a satisfactory depth of hypnotic trance was achieved a change in sexual orientation was suggested to the patient."

CHANGE: "Before therapy, each patient was assessed using the Kinsey scale. Results were evaluated in terms of the patient's subsequent behavior and his subjective feelings . Of the 15 patients, three showed no improvement, four showed a mild improvement and eight showed a marked improvement. There as a significant correlation between the depth of hypnosis achieved and the therapeutic outcome. Those patients who reached a deep level of hypnotic trance were most likely to show a marked improvement. There were no significant correlations with other factors such as degree of homosexuality as measured on the Knsey scale and the patient's marital status."

"Treatment of homosexuals with hypnosis may produce more satisfactory results than those obtained by other means. The best results are likely to be achieved with patients who are good hypnotic subjects." The deeper the hypnosis more likely improvement.

SUBJECTS: 15 males

METHOD: Hypnosis

RESULTS: 3 no improvement; 4 mild improvement; 8 marked improvement.


Roper, Rozensky (1974)

SUBJECTS: 13 males

METHOD: Hypnosis

RESULTS: Homosexuality no longer attractive, dating female

======================================

Salter, Melville (1972)

SUBJECT: 1 male

METHOD: Masturbatory conditioning

RESULTS: Client satisfied with change

======================================

Sandford, D., Tustin, R., Priest, P. (1975) Increasing heterosexual arousal in two adult male homosexuals using a differential reinforcement procedure. Behavior Therapy. 6: 689 - 693.

SUBJECTS: 2 males

METHOD: Aversive and positive instrumental conditioning with shock

RESULTS: Lost desire for homosexual contact, aroused at sight of women

======================================

Schmidt, E., Castell, D., Brown, P. (1965) A retrospective study of 42 cases of behavior therapy. Behavior Research and Therapy. 3: 9 - 19.

SUBJECTS: 9 homosexual subjects

METHOD: Behavior therapy

RESULTS: 3 marked improvement

======================================

Schwartz, M., Masters, W. (1984) The Masters and Johnson treatment program for dissatisfied homosexual men. American Journal of Psychiatry. 141: 173 - 181.

SUBJECTS: Individuals who want to change homosexual preference

METHOD: Psychotherapy - short term intensive intervention

RESULTS: Failure rate after intervention - 20.9%, after 5 year follow-up - 28.4%

CASE: 25 year-old-man had first homosexual experience at 13 arranged by lesbian mother with older gay man. Complete change of orientation.

RELIGION: "A common situation is that of the man who accepts the Biblical dictum that homosexuality is a sin. He feels guilty each time he has a homosexual experience. No matter how the man is encouraged to understand the unfolding of his homosexuality, he says, "Yes, but it is a sin." Such a man may be helped to 1) realize that there are different theological interpretations of the Bible, 2) understand that he is using his religion to castigate himself, or 3) see that he is playing games with his religion by using confession as permission to do what he considers to be a sin. Restructing of the belief that homosexuality is a sin is necessary before the man in therapy can make heterosexuality a "want-to" rather than "have-to" goal. (178)

CHOICE: "... to ignore the goals of clients who want to change their preference is both paradoxical and prejudiced. The paradoxical messages is "You are a homosexual and have to learn to live with it," which is contradictory to a major research finding of the last decade: Homosexuality is simply a descriptive term applied to a person who has a preference for same-sex romantic and sexual consorts.

"The Institute does not subscribe to the concept that all homosexuals could or should establish heterosexual intimacy. This in not, however, because homosexuality causes in some people and is therefore resistant to change. The current position is that if and when demonstrable biologic influences are firmly established there is no evidence that they will systematically affect prognosis in therapy. Environmental influences may be demonstrated to be equally influential or noninfluential in polarizing sexual development."

CHANGE: "Beyond low levels of patient motivation and unattractive or disturbed partners, there are no secure indicators of poor prognosis for therapy. We have not found that presence or absence of previous homosexual or heterosexual experience or imagery can affect prognosis in a predictable way. Attention is focused on improving therapists' skills rather than identifying certain groups of patients as poor risks. In the absence of secure data or well established prognostic indicators, it is obvious that the strongest positive predictor of successful conversion or reversion therapy is the patient's rejection of homosexual identity and an unambivalent desire to pursue heterosexuality." (180)

======================================

Segal, B., Sims, J. (1972) Covert sensitization with a homosexual: A Controlled replication. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology. 39:259 - 263.

SUBJECT: 1 male

METHOD: Covert sensitization

RESULTS: Some change, 1 relapse at 4 months, felt disgust and shame

======================================

Solyom, L., Miller, S. (1965) A differential conditioning procedure as the initial phase of behavior therapy of homosexuality. Behavior Research and Therapy. 3: 147 - 160.

SUBJECTS: 10 practicing homosexuals, 6 latent homosexuals

METHOD: Behavior therapy

RESULTS: Practicing (3 marked improvement.) Latent (5 marked improvement, 1 moderate improvement.)

======================================

Srnec, Freund (1953) Treatment of male homosexuality through conditioning. International Journal of Sexology. 7: 92 -93.

======================================

Stevenson, I., Wolpe, J. (1960) Recovery from sexual deviations through overcoming non-sexual neurotic responses. The American Journal of Psychiatry. 116: 737 - 742

SUBJECTS: 2 males

METHOD: Assertiveness training

RESULTS: Both married, one had homosexual relapse under stress

CASE: Use of reeducation and assertiveness training in the successful reorientation of two gay men. In one case the authors describe a 22-year old man whose same-gender sexual experience began at age 14. The client had begun to consider himself exclusively homosexual and viewed counseling as his last possibility before accepting this conclusion. The counselor suggested to the man that he may have been "premature in assigning himself to the group of permanent homosexuals" and that the man's homosexual activity " was chiefly drive by a wish for friendly companionship with other men. After 10 sessions of encouragement of assertive behavior, the client terminated with plans to marry. The man reported heterosexual adjustments at a 3-year follow-up.

======================================

Tanner, B. (1973) Shock intensity and fear of shock in the modification of homosexual behavior in males by avoidance learning. Behavior Research and Therapy. 11: 213 - 218.

SUBJECTS: 12 males

METHOD: Anticipatory avoidance conditioning

RESULTS: Outcome seen as change in penile circumference


Tanner, B. (1974) A comparison of automated aversive conditioning and waiting list control in the modification of homosexual behavior in males. Behavior Therapy. 5: 29 -32.

SUBJECTS: 6 males

METHODS: Anticipatory avoidance conditioning


Tanner, B., (1975) Avoidance training with and without booster sessions to modify homosexual behavior in males. Behavior Therapy. 6: 649 - 653.

SUBJECTS: 5 males

METHOD: Booster sessions for previous therapy

RESULTS: No significant differences between those receiving booster sessions and those not.

======================================

Tarlow, G. (1989) Clinical Handbook of Behavior Therapy: Adult Psychological Disorders. Brookline MA: Brookline Books.

======================================

Thompson, G. (1949) Electroshock and other therapeutic considerations in sexual psychopath. The Journal of Nervous and Mental disease. 109 : 531 -539.

SUBJECTS: 3 males, with other serious psychological problems

METHOD: Electric shock therapy

RESULTS: Did not change homosexual drive. Other areas somewhat improved

======================================

Thorpe, J., Schmidt, E. (1964) Therapeutic failure in a case of aversion therapy. Behavior Research and Therapy. 1: 293 - 296.

SUBJECT: 1 male, homosexual fantasy no behavior

METHOD: Aversive classic conditioning with shock

RESULTS: Client was very upset by treatments and terminated


Thorpe, J., Schmidt, E., Castell, D. (1963) A comparison of positive and negative (aversive) conditioning in the treatment of homosexuality. Behavior Research and Therapy. 1:357 - 362.

SUBJECT: 1 male

METHOD: Masturbatory conditioning and aversive classic conditioning with shock

RESULTS: Small change with relapses

======================================

Turner, R., Pielmaier, H., James, S., Orwin, A. (1974) Personality characteristics of male homosexuals referred for aversion therapy: A comparative study. British Journal Psychiatry. 125: 447 - 449.

SUBJECTS: 51 homosexuals referred for treatment; 59 non-patient homosexuals (41 had never sought treatment, 18 had previously done so.)Patients were "markedly neurotic".

RESULTS: Significant differences were found.

======================================

von Schrenck-Notzing, A (1895) Therapeutic suggestion (in Psychopathia Sexualis. Philadelphia: Davis.) 320

CHANGE: One of the first studies of the treatment of homosexuality. Used hypnosis on 70 male patients. The hypnotic suggestion consisted of commanding the patient to suppress perverse practices and ideas, to think of perversion as repulsive and to think of heterosexual objects as attractive. This mode of treatment seemingly a forerunner of modern behavioral therapy, was reported to achieve 37.5 per cent cures and another 34 per cent improvement. The criterion of cure was the patient's ability to have heterosexual intercourse.

METHOD: Collected data from a number of different psychiatrists of 27 patients treated with hypnosis, 21 had a "cure" or great improvement of these, 19 reached a deep or moderate depth of hypnosis.

SUBJECTS: 27 patients

METHOD: Hypnosis

RESULTS: 21 cure or great improvement

======================================

Wilson, G., Davison, G. (1974) Behavior therapy and homosexuality: A critical perspective. Behavior Therapy. 5: 16 - 17.


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