6) RELIGIOUSLY MEDIATED CHANGE
Consiglio, W. (1991) Homosexual No More: Strategies for Christians Overcoming Homosexuality. Wheaton IL: Victor Books
THEORY: Encourages "overcomers" to force themselves to "overcome the tendency to continue protecting yourself and hiding your sensitive emotions." If the "overcomer" persists "He will begin to feel whole and manly. He will start to see the end of the homosexual attraction and desire."
Fitzgibbon, R. ( 1996) The origins and healing of homosexual attractions and behavior (in Harvey, J. (1996) The Truth about Homosexuality: The Cry of the Faithful. San Francisco: Ignatius) 307 -343.
CASE: Discussion of treatment of homosexual individuals using traditional methods, forgiveness, and religious faith
Henry, G. (1951) Pastoral counseling for homosexuals. Pastoral Psychology. 2, 18: 33 - 39. [in Ellis]
Henry, G. (1955) All the sexes. NY: Rhinehart.
Hurst, E. (1980) Homosexuality: Laying the Axe to the Roots. Minneapolis MN: Outpost.
CASE: Autobiographical material from an exgay
RELIGION: "There is no biblical precedent for claiming that God desires certain individuals to remain in bondage to any sin. There is also no solid ground for questioning the traditional Bible view that all homosexual behavior is sin."
"Behind these homosexual temptations -- behind these homosexual "orientations" -- is a root problem of envy. I have seen this problem so many times that I wonder whether it isn't the prevailing root of homosexual "orientation." I know that in my own life it was the hardest one to deal with."
Moberly, E. (19**) Homosexuality: A New Christian Ethic. James Clark & Co.
CHILDHOOD: "No particular incident must inevitably disrupt the attachment to the same sex parent. But any of a wide variety of incidents may, in certain cases, happen to result in this particular form of psychological damage. The common factor in every case is disruption in the attachment to the parent of the same sex, however it may be caused."(3)
"Whatever the particular incident may be, it is something that has been experienced as hurtful by the child, whether or not intended as hurtful by the parent. The parent may or may not be culpable, but in either case the child has genuinely been hurt. The difficulty arises when which a hurt is accompanied by an unwillingness to relate any longer to the love-source that has been experienced as hurtful. This implies an abiding defect in the child's relational capacity. The tragedy is that subsequent to this effect the behavior of the same-sex parent becomes irrelevant, since the child is no longer able to relate normally to him or her. Even if love is offered, it cannot be received." (5)
"At the same time it must be emphasized that the relational defect may not be evident, or not more than partially evident, to appearances... It is perhaps more surprising how often the difficulty and the cause of the difficulty are obvious."
"The homosexual condition is itself a deficit in the child's ability to relate to the parent of the same sex which is carried over to members of the same sex in general."
"First, and perhaps most surprisingly, the defensive detachment from the same-sex parental love-source will be marked by hostility, whether overt or latent, toward parental figures and towards other members of the same sex. This hostility may be a component of actual sexual relationships." (7)
"A defensive detachment from the parent of the same sex also implies blocking of the normal identificatory process. This may in some instances, but by no means in all, be expressed in effeminacy in male homosexuals."
"The important point to note is that we are not suggesting any genuine identification with the opposite sex, but rather 'disidentification from the same sex..."
"To be attached to one's mother is in itself entirely normal. However, if there is a defensive detachment from the father, the only remaining channel for attachment is to the mother. What is normal when complemented by a father-attachment becomes abnormal when isolated from it."
DISORDER: "...the defensive detachment from the person's own sex, where the process of same-sex identification has been checked at an early point of development."
"One's own self-image is dependent on identification with the same sex..." (13)
"...heterosexuality is the ability to relate to both sexes, not just to the opposite sex as a psychologically complete member of one's own sex." (22)
"Homosexual relationships must therefore be regarded as inherently self-limiting, since they belong to the process of maturation, and cease if they have fulfilled their purpose. .By contrast, heterosexuality has no goal beyond itself.(23)
"... heterosexuality as such is never "cured' . because it is not something requiring to be healed in the first place."
Moberly, E. (1984) Psychogenisis: Early development of Gender Identity. Routledge
THEORY: Moberly is considered one of the most influential thinkers on treatment. She has influenced a number of Ex-gay ministries. Her approach resonates with those seeking help.
Mesmer, R. (1992) Homosexuals who change lifestyles. The Journal of Christian Healing. 14, 1:12 - 17.
SUBJECTS: 100 people who sought help for a change of sexual orientation
METHODS: Survey of attitudes.
RESULTS: 55% reported "exclusively heterosexual interest
47% some homosexual interest that they rarely felt compelled to act on.
13% still had some homosexual behavior.
88% felt "more alble to have friendly relaionships
88% felt "more self-respect".
17% of the respondents had married,
94% felt closer to God.
Pattison, E., Pattison, M. (1980) "Ex-gays": Religiously mediated change in homosexuals. American Journal of Psychiatry. 137, 12: 1553 -1562
SUBJECTS: Study of 11 men who changed from exclusive and active homosexuality to exclusive homosexuality.
METHOD: None of these men had ever sought professional treatment for either psychiatric reasons or for their homosexuality. The men underwent a religious conversion and while no effort was made to effect of change of "orientation" the men participated in prayer groups with heterosexual men and women.
RESULTS: "that 8 of our 11 subjects amply demonstrated a 'cure'. The remaining 3 subjects had a major behavioral and intrapsychic shift to heterosexual behavior, the persistence of homosexual impulses was still significant." (1560).
CHANGE: "Thus all subjects in our sample demonstrated a strikingly profound shift in sexual orientation... The evidence suggest that cognitive change occurs first, followed by behavioral change, and finally intrapsychic resolution." (1562).
Pattison, M. (1985) "Survey data on 'Ex-Gay' Change in Sexual Orientation. May 18, American Psychiatric Association
Payne, L.(1981) Broken Image. Westchester IL: Crossways Books
Payne, L. (1995) Crisis in Masculinity. Grand Rapids MI: Baker Books
METHOD: Healing prayer. Ms. Payne works through Pastoral Care Ministries.
CHANGE: "As a sexual neurosis, homosexuality is regarded as one of the most complex. As a condition for God it heal, it is (in spite of the widespread belief to the contrary) remarkably simple."
Rekers, G. (1982) Growing up Straight. Chicago IL: Moody Press.
Satinover, J. (1994) Psychotherapy and the cure of souls: Faith and religious belief in the treatment of Homosexuality. (in New Techniques in the Treatment of Homosexuality. Encino, CA: NARTH.)
Satinover ( ) Reflections from a spiritual, medical and philosophical perspective. Understanding Homosexuality. Encino CA: NARTH.
CHANGE: After reading Leanne Payne's book he went to a conference sponsored by her organization. "There I met hundreds of people struggling with [homosexuality] and many who had successfully emerged on the other side and were married with children. As I got to know them, I found them to be quite remarable. The struggle to be healed had left an indelible imprint. I saw a humility, an empathy, and a fearlessness about life. They knew exactly what it mean to stand up for what they believe in, since the struggle to become who they truly were had exacted such a cost in suffer."
Throckmorton, W. (nd) Touched by His Grace. Rochester NY: One by One
Wilson, E. (1988) Counseling and Homosexuality. Waco, TX: Word.
CHANGE: "Treatment using dynamic individual psychotherapy, group therapy, aversion, therapy or psychotherapy with an integration of Christian principles will produce object-choice reorientation and successful heterosexual relationships in a high percentage of persons."
RESULTS: 55% success rate in treating homosexuals who were professing Christians.
AUTOBIOGRAPHIES OF RELIGIOUSLY MEDIATED CHANGE
Andre, W., Balsiger, D. Face in the mirror.
Andre was involved for 20 years in the homosexual lifestyle. Now married.
Baker, D. (1985) Beyond Rejection: The Church, Homosexuality and Hope. Portland OR: Multnomah
Bergner, M. Setting love in order
Breedlove, J. Once gay, always gay
Comiskey, A. (1988) Pursuing Sexual Wholeness. Los Angeles CA Desert Streams Ministries.
Dallas, J. Desires in conflict.
Dallas, J. (1996) A Strong Delusion. Harvest House
Former member of pro-gay church, now ex-gay
Davis, B., Rentzel, L. (1994) Coming out of homosexuality. Downers Grove IL: InterVarsity P.
Davis, B. (1992) Presbyterian report: Gays can change. Exodus Standard. 9, 1: 4.
Hurst, E. Factors in Freedom: The struggle with life-dominating sin.
Howard, J. (1991) Out of Egypt. England: Monarch
Johnson, Michael On Wings Like Eagles. (video tape.)
Konrad, J., You don't have to be gay.
Linamen, K., Wall, K. Broken dreams.
Nancy, Homosexual struggle
Paulk, John (1998, Aug. 17 ) Gay for Life?. Newsweek
Paulk, J. (1999) Not afraid to change.
Rise, M. Michelle Danielle is dead.
From homosexual and female impersonator to Christian father and husband
Saia, M. (1988) Counseling the homosexual. Minneapolis MN: Bethany House
Stribling, T. Love broke through
Whelchel, M. If you only knew: Stories of women forever changed by God's astounding grace
Worthen, A., Davies, B. Someone I love is gay. Inter Varsity Press
Worthen, F. Helping People Step out of Homosexuality
Worthen F. (1984) Steps out of Homosexuality. San Rafael CA: Love in Action.
____, Experience, Strength and Hope: HA members share their recover.
Testimonies of members of Homosexuals Anonymous.
Exodus International Bulletin
CASE HISTORIES: Testimonies published in monthly bulletin over a number of years.
Names and pictures included with testimony.
METHODS: Religious conversion. Participation in support group. Some had therapy.
RESULTS: Autobiographies provide sufficient evidence of prechange Kinsey rating and post change rating to show that all move from a Kinsey 4, 5, and 6 to 0 or 1. Period from last homosexual behavior averages from 5 to 12. The autobiographies reveal a periods of struggle and relapse before individuals achieve freedom.
Cole, Tom (1998 June)
SUBJECT: Began sexual relationship with male at 12. From age 19 to 26; had 300-400 partners.
MEANS: Converted. Married.
RELAPSE Engaged in phone sex with men.
RESULTS: Found freedom from gay past. Ministers to others.
Dalton, Penny (1997 Dec.)
SUBJECT: Age 3 months to 3 1/2 years father absent; Parental alcoholism and Sexual abuse. High School - Drug and alcoholism abuse, psychiatric hospitalization, lesbian relationship.
MEANS: Christian conversion. Forgiveness of father lead to emotional healing.
Epstein, Andre (1997 Nov.)
SUBJECT: Jewish, poor at sports, parents divorced age12, age 15 - father died, age 17 came out, mother, stepfather and friends accepting of gay identity, high school involvement with drugs.10 years searching for "Mr. Right; 1980 contracted Hepatitis A; 1981
MEANS: Christian conversion.
RESULTS: Married and father of two sons. Troubled for some time by "old thoughts" and panic attacks.
SUBJECT: Black, fatherless, struggled against homosexual thoughts. Sought solace in Church. Molested by older boy. Entered gay scene hooked on "poppers". Contemplated suicide.
RESULTS: Married 1992.
Jernigan, Dennis (1997 May)
CASE: Famous singer's journey to freedom from homosexuality [also Gallardo, M. (1995) The song of a wounded heart. Charisma. July. Article on Dennis Jernigan.]
SUBJECT: Musically gifted; felt different from other boys. Christian conversion as a child. Engaged in secret homosexual relationships in high school and college.
MEANS: 1982 reconverted.
RESULTS: 1988 married
Johnston, Jeff (1999 Jan.)
SUBJECT: Christian youth, involved pornography and masturbation, acted out homosexually for one year,
MEANS: Reconversion 1988,
RESULTS Married with a son.
Leach, Jerry (1998 Oct.)
SUBJECT: Cross-dresser, considered a sex-change, married, not involved homosexually,
RESULTS; Free from behavior for 13 years.
Ludwig, Dottie, (1997, Feb.)
SUBJECT: Maternal loss at 3, emotional and sexual child abuse. Lesbian experience in early 20's.
MEANS: Christian conversion in 1974. Gradual emotional healing.
RESULTS: Freedom from behavior for 27 years.
Lumberger, Michael (1999 Feb)
SUBJECT: Drugs, bisexuality, prostitution. Marriage failed. Two homosexual relations. MEANS: Converted and married. Confessed his previous experiences to his wife and pastor.
RESULTS: Leader of a support group for homosexuals. Recently celebrated 12 anniversary.
SUBJECT: Married but acting out homosexually.
RESULTS: Leader of ex-gay ministry
Newman, Michael (1999 May)
SUBJECT: Homosexual experiences in college, conversion, relapse
RESULTS: In ministry from 1985
SUBJECT: Wild behavior in high school led to lesbian involvement.
MEANS: Conversion, relapse. 1 year residential program.
RESULTS: Married and mother.
Phillips, Ann (1999 March)
SUBJECT: Tried to be a Christian, and remain active in lesbian relationship.
MEANS: Left relationship and received help from Christian changed from masculine to feminine appearance.
Ragan, Bob, (1998 Nov.)
SUBJECT: 10 years in the homosexual life.
MEANS: Christian conversion in 1986.
Rogers, Sinclair (Sy) (1997 Oct) .
: Homosexual active since before age of 10. Had a profound desire to be a girl. Alcoholic mother died when he was 4. Sexually molested. Father left him with relatives.Lived as a woman for over a year in preparation for a sex-change operation.
MEANS: Christian conversion 1980.
Shores, Jim (1997 June)
SUBJECT: Homosexually active in high school, in the gay "fast lane," conversion and relapse.
MEANS: At 26 focused on healing.
RESULTS: Married in 1992. Still has temptations.
Thompson, Jason (April 1999)
SUBJECT: Struggled with homosexual temptations and pornography.
MEANS Became involved in an Exodus ministry.
RESULTS: Married in 1997.
7) SPONTANEOUS OR ADVENTITIOUS CHANGE OF SEXUAL ORIENTATION
Cameron, P., Crawford, J. et al (1985) Sexual orientation and sexually transmitted disease. Nebraska Medical Journal. 70: 292 -299.
RESULTS: 2% of their sample who claimed to be heterosexual said they had once been homosexual. This appeared to be spontaneous change not therapy. Only 4.4% of the sample claimed to be homosexual or bisexual.
Fluker, J. (1976) A 10-year study of homosexually transmitted infection. British Journal of Venereal Diseases. 55: 155 - 160
REPORT: Experience of a doctor who specializes in the treatment of STDs among homosexual men.
CASE: One patient was permanently reoriented. Two years later he returned for treatment of another problem and claimed he was happily married and that all his homosexual inclinations had disappeared. One man returned and said he was free of homosexual activity
Golwyn, D., Sevlie, C. (1993) Adventitious change in homosexual behavior during treatment of social phobia with phenelzine. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry. 141: 173 -181.
SUBJECT: 23 year old self-identified homosexual man with sevesocial phobia; homosexual since teens and sexually active exclusively with homosexual male. Fantasies homosexual.
METHOD: Treatment with phenelzine for shyness.
RESULTS: During treatment, however, there was an unexpected change in his sexual orientation.. Started dating women and had heterosexual fantasies.
THEORY: Subject blamed homosexuality on childhood teasing by peers and acceptance by homosexual men who courted him.
"We conclude that social phobia may be a hidden contributing factor in some instances of homosexual behavior."
Wolpe, J. (1969) The Practice of Behavior Therapy Elmsford, NY: Pergamon
SUBJECT: 1 male
METHOD: Assertiveness training
RESULT: Full sexual orientation shift
RELIGION: Wolpe did not believe change of orientation was possible. He refused to help the client overcome his homosexuality, because he felt that the client's religious convictions and beliefs were responsible for anxiety and worked to give the client a different religious perspective. By the 6th session the client had come to "see that he had taken sin, particularly in relation to sexuality, too seriously." Wolpe then helped the client use assertive behavior.
CHANGE: The client left therapy but later communicated to the therapist that he no longer responded sexually to men. He dated, married and reported a complete shift.
Kinsey, A., Pomeroy, W., Martin, C. (1948) Sexual behavior in the human male. Philadelphia: W.B. Saunders.
CHANGE: "Some of the males who are involved in one type of relation at one period in their lives, may have only the other type of relation at some later period. There may be considerable fluctuation of patters from time to time. Some males may be involved in both heterosexual and homosexual activities within the same period of time."
KINSEY: Data collected by Kinsey on males shows that six percent of those who were exclusively heterosexual had once been exclusively homosexual. Additionally the percentages of homosexuals and heterosexuals by age show substantial decrease in the homosexual categories suggesting that as males age some of those who were homosexual cease to be so (or that homosexuals die at younger ages).
Kinsey, A., Pomeroy, W., Martin C., Gebhard, P. (1953) Sexual behavior in the human female. Philadelphia: W. B. Saunders
CHANGE: "Some individuals may materially change their psychosexual orientation in successive years."
Pomeroy, W. (1972) Dr. Kinsey and the Institute for Sex Research. NY: Harper and Row.
KINSEY: Kinsey discovered "more than eighty cases of (previously homosexual) men who had made a satisfactory heterosexual adjustment." He summarized successful change in therapy as being never less than 30%.
Pincu, L (1989) Sexual compulsivity in gay men: Controversey and treatment. Journal of Counseling and Development. 68, 1: 63 - 66.
ADDICTION: The adrenalin rush associated with forbidden excitement is also addictive and well documented.
Ross, M (1983) The Married Homosexual Man. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul.
RESULTS: Surveyed married homosexuals - 5% said their homosexuality became less intense during marriage.
KINSEY: On Kinsey data: "Given these data it would seem more accurate to classify sexual orientation in terms of direction at a given point in time rather than of its history. Sexuality can thus be seen as a fluctuating variable rather than as a constant."
Schneider, J., Schneider, B. (1990) Marital satisfaction during recovery from self-identified sexual addiction among bisexual men and their wives. Journal of Sex and Marital Therapy. 16, 4: 230 - 250
CHANGE: 60% of men in study had no sexual encounters with other men over periods ranging from four months to sex years, a mean of 2.6 years. The changes were greater the more heterosexual the initial orientation.
________, Sex in America: The Social Organization of Sexuality.
CHANGE: 2.8% of the men in their sample were essentially homosexual. But a much larger percentage had been homosexual at some point in their lives previously. Somewhere between 10% and 16% had apparently gone through a homosexual phase.
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