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since June 19, 2001


Dale's Web Pages

Childhood experiences of homosexual men

by Dale O'Leary; for NARTH


Apperson, L., McAdoo, W. (1968) Parental Factors in the Childhood of Homosexuals. Journal of Abnormal Psychology. 73,3: 201-206.

Bailey, J., Pillard, R. (1991) A Genetic Study of Male Sexual Orientation. Archive of General Psychiatry. 48: 1089-1096.

Bakwin, H. (1960) Transvestitism in Children. Journal of Pediatrics. 56:294-298

Bates, J., Skilbeck, W., Smith, K., Bentler, P.(1974) Gender Role Abnormalities in Boys: An Analysis of Clinical Ratings. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology. 2, 1: 1-15.

Bell, A., Weinberg, M., Hammersmith, S. (1978) Homosexualities: A Study of Diversity among Men and Women. New York: Basic Books.

Bell, A., Weinberg, M., Hammersmith, S. (1981) Sexual Preference: Its Development in Men and Women: Bloomington IN: Indiana U.P

Bene, E. (1965) On the genesis of male homosexuality: An attempt at clarifying the role of the parents. British Journal of Psychiatry. 111: 803 - 813.

Bieber, I. et al. (1962) Homosexuality: A Psychoanalytic Study of Male Homosexuals. New York: Basic Books.

Bieber, I., Bieber, T. (1979) Male Homosexuality. Canadian Journal of Psychiatry.24: 409-421.

Blanchard, R., Bogaert, A. (1996) Homosexuality in Men and Number of Older Brothers. American Journal of Psychiatry. 153,1:27-31.

Bradley, S., Zucker, K. (1997) Gender Identity Disorder: A Review of the Past 10 Years. journal of the American Academy of Adolescent Psychiatry. 34, 7: 872-880.

Brown, D. (1963). Homosexuality and Family Dynamics. Paper presented at the Annual Air Force Clinical Psychology Meeting, Jan. 10, 1963.

Byne, W., Parsons, B. (1993) Human Sexual Orientation: The Biologic Theories Reappraised. Archives of General Psychiatry.50: 228-239.

Byrd, A. (1997) A Developmental Model of Male Homosexuality: The Greg Louganis Story.13-24.

Chang, J., Block, J. (1960) A study of identification in male homosexuals. Journal of Consulting Psychology. 24: 307 - 310.

Coates, S. (1985) Extreme boyhood femininity: Overview and new research findings. In Z.DeFries, R. Friedman, & R. Corn (Eds.) , Sexuality: New Perspectives. (101 - 124) Westport CT: Greenwood.

Coates, S., Friedman, R., Wolfe, S. (1991) The etiology of boyhood gender identity disorder: A model for integrating temperament, development, and psychodynamics. Psychoanalytic Dialogues. 1: 481 - 523.

Barnhouse, R. (1977) Homosexuality: A Symbolic Confusion. NY: Seabury Press.

Davenport, C. (1986) A follow-up Study of 10 feminine boys. Archives of Sexual Behavior. 15: 511-517.

Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders IV, American Psychological Association, (DSMIV) (1994)

Elke, D., Bouchard, T., Bohlen, J., Heston, L. (1986) Homosexuality in Monozygotic Twins Reared Apart. British Journal of Psychiatry. 148: 421 - 425.

Fenichel, O., (1945) The Psychoanalytic Theory of Neurosis. NY: W.W. Norton. p. 331.

Fisher, S., Greenberg, R. (1996) Freud Scientifically Reappraised. NY: Wiley & Sons.

Fitzgibbons, R. (1996) Origins and Healing of Homosexual Attractions and Behavior. (in The Truth about Homosexuality by J. Harvey, San Francisco: Ignatius.

Friedman, R., Stern, L. (1980) Juvenile Aggressivity and Sissiness in Homosexual and Heterosexual Males. Journal of the American Academy of Psychoanalysis. 8, 3: 427-440.

Friedman, R. (1988) Male Homosexuality: A Contemporary Psychoanalytic Perspective. New Haven: Yale U. Press.

Green, R. (1972) Homosexuality as a mental illness. International Journal of Psychiatry. 10:77-98.

Green, R. (1974) Sexual Identity Conflict in Children and Adults. Baltimore: Penguin.

Green, (1976) One-hundred ten feminine and masculine boys: Behavioral contrasts and demographic similarities. Archives of Sexual Behavior. 5:425-446.

Green, R. (1985) Gender Identity in Childhood and Later Sexual Orientation: Follow-up of 78 Males. American Journal of Psychiatry. 142, 3: 339-441.

Green, R. (1987) The "Sissy Boy Syndrome" and the Development of Homosexuality. New Haven: Yale University Press.

Harry, J. (1983) Gay Children Grown up: Gender Culture and Gender Deviance. New York: Praeger.

Holeman, R., Winokur, G. (1965) Effeminate Homosexuality: A Disease of Childhood. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry. 35:48-56.

Isay, R. (1989) Being Homosexual: Gay Men and Their Development. NY: Farrar, Straus, Giroux.

Karlen, A. (1971) Sexuality and Homosexuality: A New View. NY: W.W. Norton.

Kramer, L. (1978) Faggots. Random House: NY.

Kramer, L. (1981) Reports from the Holocaust. St. Martins Press. NY.

Lothstein, L (1983) Female-to-male transsexualism: Historical, clinical, and theoretical issues. Boston: Routledge & Kegan Paul.

Lothstein, L.(1988) Selfobject failure and gender identity. In A. Goldberg (Ed.) Frontiers in self psychology (Vol.3, pp. 213 - 235) Hillsdale, NJ: Analytic Press.

Mallen, C. (1983) Sex Role Stereotypes, Gender Identity and Parental Relationships in Male Homosexuals and Heterosexuals. Homosexuality and Social Sex Roles. 55 - 73.

Marantz, S., Coates, S. (1991) Mothers of boys with gender identity disorder: A comparison of matched controls. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. 30:310 - 315.

Meyer, J., Dupkin, C. (1985) Gender disturbance in children: An interim clinical report. Bulletin of Menniger Clinic. 49:239 - 269.

Mitchell (1991) Maternal influences on gender identity disorder in boys: Searching for specificity. Unpublished doctoral dissertation. York U. Ontario. (in Zucker 1995)

Moberly, E.(1983) Homosexuality: A New Christian Ethic. Cambridge: James Clarke.

Money, J., Russo, A. (1979) Homosexual Outcome of Discordant Gender Activity Role in Childhood: Longitudinal Follow-up. Journal of Pediatric Psychology. 4, 1:29 - 49.

Newman, L., (1976) Treatment for the Parents of Feminine Boys. American Journal of Psychiatry. 133, 6: 683 - 687.

Nicolosi, J. -- unpublished material

Odets, W. (1995) In the Shadow of the Epidemic. Durham: Duke University Press.

Payne, L.(1981) The Broken Image. Grand Rapids, MI: Baker Books

Payne, L (1985) Crisis in Masculinity. Grand Rapids, MI: Baker Books

Rekers, GA, Lovaas, O., Low, B. (1974) The behavioral treatment of a "transsexual" pre-adolescent boy. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology. 2:99-115

Rekers, G. (1982) Shaping your child's sexual identity. Grand Rapids, MI: Baker Books

Rekers, G., Swihart, J. (1989) The association of gender identity disorder with parental separation. Psychological Reports. 65: 1272-1274.

Rekers, G. (1995) Handbook of Childhood and Adolescent Sexual Problems. NY: Lexington Books.

Saghir, M., Robins, E. (1973) Male and Female Homosexuality: A comprehensive Investigation. Baltimore: Williams & Wilkins.

Siegleman, M. (1981) Parental backgrounds of homosexuals and heterosexual men: A cross national replication. Archives of Sexual Behavior. 10: 506 - 512.

Sherman, R. (1985) Separation conflict as a component of severe gender identity confusion in schoolage boys. unpublished. Adelphi U. (referenced in Zucker 1995)

Silverstein, C.(1982) Man to Man: Gay Couples in America. NY: Quill.

Signorile, M.(1997) Life Outside. NY: Harper Collins.

Sipova, I., Brzek, A. (1983) Parental and Interpersonal Relationships of Transsexual and Masculine and Feminine Homosexual Men. Homosexuals and Social Roles. Haworth.75 -85.

Snortum, J., Gillespie, J., Marshall, J., McLaughin, J., Mosberg, L. (1969) Family Dynamics and Homosexuality. Psychological Reports. 24: 763 - 770.

Stephan, W. (1973) Parental Relationships and Early Social Experiences of Activist Male Homosexuals and Male Heterosexuals. Journal of Abnormal Psychology. 82, 3: 506 - 513

Stoller, R. (1973) Overview: The Impact of New Advances in Sex Research on Psychoanalytic Theory. American Journal of Psychiatry. 130: 246 - 249

Stoller, R. (1975) Sex and gender: Vol. 2. The transsexual experiment. London: Hogarth Press.

Stoller, R. (1979) Fathers of Transsexual children. Journal of American Psychoanalytic Association. 27:837-866

Sullivan, A. (1995) Virtually Normal. NY: Alfred Knopf.

Thompson, N. Schwartz, D., McCandles, B., Edwards, D. (1973) Parent-Child Relationships and Sexual Identity in Male and Female Homosexuals and Heterosexuals. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology.41, 1: 120 - 127.

Ullman, P. (1960) Parental Participation in Childrearing as Evaluated by Male Social Deviates. Pacific Sociological Review. Fall, 89 - 95.

van den Aardweg, G. (1986) On the origins and treatment of homosexuality: A psychoanalytic reinterpretation. NY: Praeger.

Whitam, F. (1977) Childhood Indicators of Male Homosexuality. Archives of Sexual Behavior. 6,2:89 - 96.

Whitam, F. (1980) The Prehomosexual Male Child in Three Societies: The Unitied States, Guatamala, and Brazil. Archives of Sexual Behavior. 9:37-99.

Whitam, F., Zent, M. (1984) A Cross-cultural Assessment of Early Cross Gender Behavior and Familial Factors in Male Homosexuality. Archives of Sexual Behavior. 13, 5:427 - 441.

Wolfe, S. (1990) Psychopathology and psychodynamics of parents of boys with a gender identity disorder of childhood. Doctoral dissertation, City U. of New York (quoted in Zucker and Bradley).

Zucker, K., Wild, J., Bradley, S., Lowry, C. (1993) Physical attractiveness of boys with gender identity disorder. Archives of Sexual Behavior. 22: 23 - 24.

Zucker, K., Bradley, S. (1995) Gender Identity Disorder and Psychosexual Problems in Children and Adolescents. NY: Guilford.

Zuger, B. (1970) The Role of Familial Factors in Persistent Effeminate Behavior in Boys. American Journal of Psychiatry. 126, 8: 1167 - 1170.

Zuger, B. (1976) Monozygotic Twins Discordant for Homosexuality: Report of a Pair and Significance of the Phenomenon. Comprehensive Psychiatry. 17: 661 - 669.

Stoller, R. (1979) Fathers of Transsexual children. Journal of American Psychoanalytic Association. 27:837-866

Zuger, B. (1984) Early Effeminate Behavior in Boys: Outcome and Significance for Homosexuality. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disorders 172, 2:90-97.

_____ "Researchers Probe Factors Behind Gender Disorders" (June, 1997) APA Monitor

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Original Text from Dale's Disk — childb.rtf - April, 1999
Formatted to HTML 2000 10 23 — WHS